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Medical


Medical - EQUIPMENT parts, auxiliaries and ACCESSORIES
  • ACCESS COVER: Part of an ENCLOSURE or guard providing the possibility of access to EQUIPMENT parts for the purpose of adjustment, inspection, replacement or repair.
  • ACCESSIBLE METAL PART: Metal part of EQUIPMENT which can be touched without the use of a TOOL.
  • ACCESSORY: Optional component necessary and/or suitable to be used with EQUIPMENT in order to enable, facilitate or improve the intended use of EQUIPMENT or to integrate additional functions.
  • ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS: Documents accompanying EQUIPMENT or an ACCESSORY and containing all important information for the USER, OPERATOR, installer or assembler of EQUIPMENT, particularly regarding safety.
  • APPLIED PART: A part of the EQUIPMENT which in NORMAL USE:
    necessarily comes into physical contact with the PATIENT for the EQUIPMENT to perform its function; or
    can be brought into contact with the PATIENT; or
    needs to be touched by the PATIENT.
  • ENCLOSURE: Exterior surface of EQUIPMENT including:
    all ACCESSIBLE METAL PARTS, knobs, grips and the like;
    accessible shafts;
    for the purpose of tests, metal foil, with specified dimensions, applied in contact with parts of the exterior surface made of material with low conductivity or made of insulating material.
  • F-TYPE ISOLATED (FLOATING) APPLIED PART (hereinafter referred to as F-TYPE APPLIED PART): APPLIED PART isolated from other parts of the EQUIPMENT to such a degree that no current higher than the PATIENT LEAKAGE CURRENT allowable in SINGLE FAULT CONDITION flows if an unintended voltage originating from an external source is connected to the PATIENT, and thereby applied between the APPLIED PART and earth. F-TYPE APPLIED PARTS are either TYPE BF APPLIED PARTS or TYPE CF APPLIED PARTS.
  • INTERNAL ELECTRICAL POWER SOURCE: Power source intended to provide the electrical power necessary to operate EQUIPMENT and which is incorporated in that EQUIPMENT.
  • LIVE: State of a part which, when connection is made to that part, can cause a current exceeding the allowable LEAKAGE CURRENT for the part concerned to flow from that part to earth or from that part to an ACCESSIBLE PART of the same EQUIPMENT.
  • MAINS PART: Entirety of all parts of EQUIPMENT intended to have a CONDUCTIVE CONNECTION with the SUPPLY MAINS. For the purpose of this definition, the PROTECTIVE EARTH CONDUCTOR is not regarded as a part of the MAINS PART.
  • PATIENT CIRCUIT: Any electrical circuit which contains one or more PATIENT CONNECTIONS. PATIENT CIRCUITS include all conductive parts which are not insulated from the PATIENT CONNECTIONS to the extent necessary to comply with the dielectric strength requirements or which are not separated from the PATIENT CONNECTIONS to the extent necessary to comply with the CREEPAGE DISTANCE and AIR CLEARANCE requirements.
  • PROTECTIVE COVER: Part of an ENCLOSURE or guard provided to prevent accidental access to parts which might be hazardous if contacted.
  • SIGNAL INPUT PART: Part of EQUIPMENT, not being an APPLIED PART, intended to receive input signal voltages or currents from other EQUIPMENT, for example, for display, recording or data processing
  • SIGNAL OUTPUT PART: Part of EQUIPMENT, not being an APPLIED PART, intended to deliver output signal voltages or currents to other EQUIPMENT, for example, for display, recording or data processing
  • SUPPLY EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT which supplies electrical power to one or more items of EQUIPMENT.
  • ACCESSIBLE PART: Part of EQUIPMENT which can be touched without the use of a TOOL.
  • PATIENT CONNECTION: Every individual part of the APPLIED PART through which current can flow between the PATIENT and the EQUIPMENT in NORMAL CONDITION or SINGLE FAULT CONDITION.
  • TYPE B APPLIED PART: APPLIED PART complying with the specified requirements of this Standard to provide protection against electric shock, particularly regarding allowable LEAKAGE CURRENT and marked with symbol 1.NOTE – TYPE B APPLIED PARTS are not suitable for DIRECT CARDIAC APPLICATION.
  • TYPE BF APPLIED PART: F-TYPE APPLIED PART complying with the specified requirements of this Standard to provide a higher degree of protection against electric shock than that provided by TYPE B APPLIED PARTS and marked with symbol. NOTE – TYPE BF APPLIED PARTS are not suitable for DIRECT CARDIAC APPLICATION.
  • TYPE CF APPLIED PART: F-TYPE APPLIED PART complying with the specified requirements of this Standard to provide a higher degree of protection against electric shock than that provided by TYPE BF APPLIED PARTS and marked with symbol.
  • DEFIBRILLATION-PROOF APPLIED PART: APPLIED PART having protection against the effects of a discharge of a cardiac defibrillator to the PATIENT. *See rationale for 2.1.27

    Medical - EQUIPMENT types (classification)
  • CATEGORY AP EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT or EQUIPMENT part complying with specified requirements on construction, marking and documentation in order to avoid sources of ignition in a FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURE WITH AIR.
  • CATEGORY APG EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT or EQUIPMENT part complying with specified requirements on construction, marking and documentation in order to avoid sources of ignition in a FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURE WITH OXYGEN OR NITROUS OXIDE.
  • CLASS I EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT in which protection against electric shock does not rely on BASIC INSULATION only, but which includes an additional safety precaution in that means are provided for the connection of the EQUIPMENT to the PROTECTIVE EARTH CONDUCTOR in the fixed wiring of the installation in such a way that ACCESSIBLE METAL PARTS cannot become LIVE in the event of a failure of the BASIC INSULATION.
  • CLASS II EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT in which protection against electric shock does not rely on BASIC INSULATION only, but in which additional safety precautions such as DOUBLE INSULATION or REINFORCED INSULATION are provided, there being no provision for protective earthing or reliance upon installation conditions.
  • DIRECT CARDIAC APPLICATION: Use of APPLIED PART which may come in direct CONDUCTIVE CONNECTION to the PATIENT’S heart.
  • FIXED EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT which is fastened or otherwise secured at a specific location in a building or a vehicle and can only be detached by means of a TOOL.
  • HAND-HELD EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT intended to be supported by the hand during NORMAL USE.
  • MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (hereinafter referred to as EQUIPMENT): Electrical EQUIPMENT, provided with not more than one connection to a particular SUPPLY MAINS and intended to diagnose, treat, or monitor the PATIENT under medical supervision and which makes physical or electrical contact with the PATIENT and/or transfers energy to or from the PATIENT and/or detects such energy transfer to or from the PATIENT. The EQUIPMENT includes those ACCESSORIES as defined by the manufacturer which are necessary to enable the NORMAL USE of the EQUIPMENT.
  • MOBILE EQUIPMENT: TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT intended to be moved from one location to another between periods of use while supported by its own wheels or equivalent means.
  • PERMANENTLY INSTALLED EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT that is electrically connected to the SUPPLY MAINS by means of a permanent connection which can only be detached by the use of a TOOL.
  • PORTABLE EQUIPMENT: TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT intended to be moved from one location to another while used or between periods of use while being carried by one or more persons.
  • STATIONARY EQUIPMENT: Either FIXED EQUIPMENT or EQUIPMENT which is not intended to be moved from one place to another.
  • TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT which is intended to be moved from one place to another whether or not connected to a supply and without an appreciable restriction of range. Examples: MOBILE EQUIPMENT and PORTABLE EQUIPMENT.
  • INTERNALLY POWERED EQUIPMENT: EQUIPMENT able to operate from an INTERNAL ELECTRICAL POWER SOURCE.

    Medical - Insulation
  • AIR CLEARANCE: Shortest path in air between two conductive parts.
  • BASIC INSULATION: Insulation applied to LIVE parts to provide basic protection against electric shock.
  • CREEPAGE DISTANCE: Shortest path along the surface of insulating material between two conductive parts.
  • DOUBLE INSULATION: Insulation comprising both BASIC INSULATION and SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION.
  • REINFORCED INSULATION: Single insulation system applied to LIVE parts which provides a degree of protection against electric shock equivalent to DOUBLE INSULATION under the conditions specified in this Standard.
  • SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION: Independent insulation applied in addition to BASIC INSULATION in order to provide protection against electric shock in the event of a failure of BASIC INSULATION.

    Medical - Voltages
  • HIGH VOLTAGE: Any voltage over 1 000 V a.c. or over 1 500 V d.c. or 1 500 V peak value.
  • MAINS VOLTAGE: Voltage of a SUPPLY MAINS between two line conductors of a polyphase system or voltage between the line conductor and the neutral conductor of a single-phase system.
  • SAFETY EXTRA-LOW VOLTAGE (SELV): Voltage which does not exceed a NOMINAL value of 25 V a.c. or 60 V d.c. at RATED supply voltage on the transformer or converter, between conductors in an earth-free circuit which is isolated from the SUPPLY MAINS by a SAFETY EXTRA-LOW VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER or by a device with an equivalent separation.

    Medical - Currents
  • EARTH LEAKAGE CURRENT: Current flowing from the MAINS PART through or across the insulation into the PROTECTIVE EARTH CONDUCTOR.
  • ENCLOSURE LEAKAGE CURRENT: Current flowing from the ENCLOSURE or from parts thereof, excluding APPLIED PARTS, accessible to the OPERATOR or PATIENT in NORMAL USE, through an external CONDUCTIVE CONNECTION other than the PROTECTIVE EARTH CONDUCTOR to earth or to another part of the ENCLOSURE.
  • LEAKAGE CURRENT: Current that is not functional. The following LEAKAGE CURRENTS are defined: EARTH LEAKAGE CURRENT, ENCLOSURE LEAKAGE CURRENT and PATIENT LEAKAGE CURRENT.
  • PATIENT AUXILIARY CURRENT: Current flowing in the PATIENT in NORMAL USE between parts of the APPLIED PART and not intended to produce a physiological effect, for example, bias current of an amplifier, current used in impedance plethysmography.
  • PATIENT LEAKAGE CURRENT: Current flowing from the APPLIED PART via the PATIENT to earth or flowing from the PATIENT via an F-TYPE APPLIED PART to earth originating from the unintended appearance of a voltage from an external source on the PATIENT.

    Medical - Earth terminals and conductors
  • FUNCTIONAL EARTH CONDUCTOR: Conductor to be connected to a FUNCTIONAL EARTH TERMINAL
  • FUNCTIONAL EARTH TERMINAL: Terminal directly connected to a point of a measuring supply or control circuit or to a screening part which is intended to be earthed for functional purposes.
  • POTENTIAL EQUALIZATION CONDUCTOR: Conductor providing a connection between EQUIPMENT and the potential equalization busbar of the electrical installation.
  • PROTECTIVE EARTH CONDUCTOR: Conductor to be connected between the PROTECTIVE EARTH TERMINAL and an external protective earthing system.
  • PROTECTIVE EARTH TERMINAL: Terminal connected to conductive parts of CLASS I EQUIPMENT for safety purposes. This terminal is intended to be connected to an external protective earthing system by a PROTECTIVE EARTH CONDUCTOR.
  • PROTECTIVELY EARTHED: Connected to the PROTECTIVE EARTH TERMINAL for protective purposes by means complying with the requirements of this Standard.

    Medical - Electrical connection (devices)
  • APPLIANCE COUPLER: Means enabling the connection of a flexible cord to EQUIPMENT without the use of a TOOL, consisting of two parts: a MAINS CONNECTOR and an APPLIANCE INLET.
  • APPLIANCE INLET: Part of an APPLIANCE COUPLER incorporated in or fixed to EQUIPMENT
  • AUXILIARY MAINS SOCKET-OUTLET: Socket-outlet with MAINS VOLTAGE on EQUIPMENT, accessible without the use of a TOOL and intended for provision of mains supply to other EQUIPMENT or to other separate parts of the EQUIPMENT.
  • CONDUCTIVE CONNECTION: Connection through which a current can flow exceeding the allowable LEAKAGE CURRENT.
  • DETACHABLE POWER SUPPLY CORD: Flexible cord intended to be connected to EQUIPMENT by means of a suitable APPLIANCE COUPLER.
  • EXTERNAL TERMINAL DEVICE: TERMINAL DEVICE by which electrical connection to other EQUIPMENT is made.
  • FIXED MAINS SOCKET-OUTLET: Mains socket-outlet installed in a fixed wiring system in a building or a vehicle
  • INTERCONNECTION TERMINAL DEVICE: TERMINAL DEVICE by which internal connections within EQUIPMENT or between EQUIPMENT parts are made.
  • MAINS CONNECTOR: Part of an APPLIANCE COUPLER integral with or intended to be attached to a flexible cord which is intended to be connected to the SUPPLY MAINS. A MAINS CONNECTOR is intended to be inserted into the APPLIANCE INLET of EQUIPMENT.
  • MAINS PLUG: Part integral with or intended to be attached to a POWER SUPPLY CORD of EQUIPMENT, to be inserted into a FIXED MAINS SOCKET OUTLET.
  • MAINS TERMINAL DEVICE: TERMINAL DEVICE by which the electrical connection to the SUPPLY MAINS is made
  • TERMINAL DEVICE: Part of EQUIPMENT by which electrical connection is made; it may contain several individual contacts.
  • POWER SUPPLY CORD: Flexible cord, fixed to or assembled with EQUIPMENT for mains supply purposes.

    Medical - Transformers
  • SAFETY EXTRA-LOW VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER: Transformer with an output-winding which is electrically separated from earth and the body of the transformer by at least BASIC INSULATION and which is electrically separated from the input-winding by an insulation at least equivalent to DOUBLE INSULATION or REINFORCED INSULATION and which is designed to supply SAFETY EXTRA-LOW VOLTAGE circuits.

    Medical - Controls and limiting devices
  • ADJUSTABLE SETTING (of a control or limiting device): Setting which can be altered by the OPERATOR without the use of a TOOL.
  • FIXED SETTING (of a control or limiting device): Setting not intended to be altered by the OPERATOR and which can only be altered by means of a TOOL.
  • OVER-CURRENT RELEASE: Protective device which causes a circuit to open with or without delay, when the current in the device exceeds a predetermined value.
  • SELF-RESETTING THERMAL CUT-OUT: THERMAL CUT-OUT which automatically restores the current after the relevant part of EQUIPMENT has cooled.
  • THERMAL CUT-OUT: Device which, during abnormal operation, limits the temperature of EQUIPMENT or of parts of it, by automatically opening the circuit or by reducing the current, and which is so constructed that its setting cannot be altered by the OPERATOR.
  • THERMOSTAT: A temperature sensing control, which is intended to keep a temperature between two particular values under normal operating conditions and which may have provision for setting by the OPERATOR.

    Medical - Operation of EQUIPMENT
  • COLD CONDITION: The condition obtained if EQUIPMENT is de-energized for a sufficiently long time to attain the ambient temperature.
  • CONTINUOUS OPERATION: Operation under normal load for an unlimited period, without the specified limits of temperature being exceeded.
  • CONTINUOUS OPERATION WITH INTERMITTENT LOADING: Operation in which EQUIPMENT is connected continuously to the SUPPLY MAINS. The stated permissible loading time is so short that the long term on-load operating temperature is not attained. The ensuing interval in loading is, however, not sufficiently long for cooling down to the long term no-load operating temperature.
  • CONTINUOUS OPERATION WITH SHORT-TIME LOADING: Operation in which EQUIPMENT is connected continuously to the SUPPLY MAINS. The stated permissible loading time is so short that the long term on-load operating temperature is not attained. The ensuing interval is, however, sufficiently long for cooling down to the long term no-load operating temperature.
  • DUTY CYCLE: Ratio of the operating time to the sum of the operating time and the ensuing interval. In the case of operating times and intervals of varying duration, it is calculated as a mean value over a sufficiently long time.
  • INTERMITTENT OPERATION: Operation in a series of specified identical cycles, each cycle being composed of a period of operation under normal load, without the specified limits of temperature being exceeded, followed by a rest period with the EQUIPMENT running idle or switched off.
  • NORMAL CONDITION: Condition in which all means provided for protection against SAFETY HAZARDS are intact.
  • NORMAL USE: Operation, including routine inspection and adjustments by the OPERATOR, and standby, according to the instructions for use.
  • PROPERLY INSTALLED: Condition in which at least the relevant instructions concerning installation given by the manufacturer in the ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS are observed.
  • SHORT-TIME OPERATION: Operation under normal load for a specified period, starting from COLD CONDITION without the specified limits of temperature being exceeded, the intervals between each period of operation being sufficient to allow the EQUIPMENT to cool down to COLD CONDITION.
  • SINGLE FAULT CONDITION: Condition in which a single means for protection against a SAFETY HAZARD in EQUIPMENT is defective or a single external abnormal condition is present.
  • X-RAY INSTALLATIONS (LONG-TIME RATING): A rating based on an operating interval of 5 minutes or longer.

    Medical - Mechanical safety
  • HYDRAULIC TEST PRESSURE: PRESSURE applied to test a vessel or part of it.
  • MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE WORKING PRESSURE: PRESSURE specified by the manufacturer or by the inspection authority or competent person(s) in the report of the most recent examination.
  • MINIMUM BREAKING LOAD: Maximum load where Hooke’s Law is applicable.
  • PRESSURE (overpressure): Pressure above atmospheric (gauge pressure).
  • SAFE WORKING LOAD: Maximum load on an EQUIPMENT or EQUIPMENT part that can be permitted according to a declaration of the supplier of such an EQUIPMENT or EQUIPMENT part if his instructions for installation and use are followed.
  • SAFETY DEVICE: Means which protect the PATIENT and/or OPERATOR from a hazardous force due to excessive travel or from the fall of a suspended mass in the event of failure of a means of suspension.
  • STATIC LOAD: Maximum loading of a part excluding any loading caused by acceleration or deceleration of masses. Where a load is divided over several parallel supporting parts and the distribution over these parts is not determined unequivocally, the least favourable possibility shall be considered.
  • SAFETY FACTOR: The ratio between the MINIMUM BREAKING LOAD and SAFE WORKING LOAD.
  • TOTAL LOAD: Sum of the STATIC LOAD and the forces caused by acceleration and deceleration occurring in NORMAL CONDITION.

    Medical - Miscellaneous
  • MODEL OR TYPE REFERENCE (type number): Combination of figures, letters or both used to identify a particular model of EQUIPMENT.
  • NOMINAL (value): Value quoted for reference purposes which is subject to agreed tolerances, for example, NOMINAL MAINS VOLTAGE, NOMINAL diameter of a screw.
  • PATIENT: Living being (person or animal) undergoing medical or dental investigation or treatment.
  • RATED (value): Value assigned by the manufacturer to a quantity characteristic of the EQUIPMENT.
  • SERIAL NUMBER: Number and/or other designation used to identify an individual unit of a certain model of EQUIPMENT.
  • SUPPLY MAINS: Permanently installed power source which may also be used to supply electrical apparatus that is outside the scope of this Standard. This also includes permanently installed battery systems in ambulances and the like.
  • TOOL: Extra-corporeal object which may be used to secure or release fasteners or to make adjustments.
  • USER: Authority responsible for the use and maintenance of EQUIPMENT.
  • EMERGENCY TROLLEY: Wheeled trolley intended to support and convey life-supporting and resuscitation EQUIPMENT for cardio-respiratory emergencies.
  • FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURE WITH AIR: Mixture of a flammable anaesthetic vapour with air in such a concentration that ignition may occur under specified conditions. A mixture of the vapour of a flammable disinfection or cleaning agent with air may be treated as a FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURE WITH AIR subject to national or local regulations.
  • FLAMMABLE ANAESTHETIC MIXTURE WITH OXYGEN OR NITROUS OXIDE: Mixture of a flammable anaesthetic vapour with oxygen or with nitrous oxide in such a concentration that ignition may occur under specified conditions.
  • OPERATOR: Person handling EQUIPMENT.
  • SAFETY HAZARD: Potentially detrimental effect on the PATIENT, other persons, animals, or the surroundings, arising directly from EQUIPMENT.

    Product Safety


    Equipment electrical ratings
  • RATED VOLTAGE: The supply voltage (for a three-phase AC MAINS SUPPLY, the line-to-line voltage) as declared by the manufacturer.
  • RATED VOLTAGE RANGE: The supply voltage range as declared by the manufacturer, expressed by its lower and upper RATED VOLTAGES.
  • RATED CURRENT: The input current of the equipment as declared by the manufacturer.
  • RATED FREQUENCY: The supply frequency as declared by the manufacturer.
  • RATED FREQUENCY RANGE: The supply frequency range as declared by the manufacturer, expressed by its lower and upper RATED FREQUENCIES.

    Operating conditions
  • NORMAL LOAD: The mode of operation which approximates as closely as possible the most severe conditions of normal use in accordance with the operating instructions. However, when the conditions of actual use can obviously be more severe than the maximum recommended load conditions, a load is used that is representative of the maximum that can be applied. NOTE – NORMAL LOAD conditions for some types of electrical business equipment are given in annex L.
  • RATED OPERATING TIME: The operating time assigned to the equipment by the manufacturer.
  • CONTINUOUS OPERATION: Operation under NORMAL LOAD for an unlimited period.
  • SHORT-TIME OPERATION: Operation under NORMAL LOAD for a specified period, starting from cold, the intervals after each period of operation being sufficient to allow the equipment to cool down to room temperature.
  • INTERMITTENT OPERATION: Operation in a series of specified identical cycles, each composed of a period of operation under NORMAL LOAD followed by a rest period with the equipment switched off or running idle.

    Equipment mobility
  • MOVABLE EQUIPMENT: Equipment which is either:
    18 kg or less in mass and not fixed, or
    equipment with wheels, castors or other means to facilitate movement by the OPERATOR as required to perform its intended use. NOTE – MOVABLE EQUIPMENT includes wall-mounted equipment whose mounting means permits removal by an OPERATOR.
  • HAND-HELD EQUIPMENT: MOVABLE EQUIPMENT, or a part of any kind of equipment, that is intended to be held in the hand during normal use.
  • TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT: MOVABLE EQUIPMENTthat is intended to be routinely carried by a USER. NOTE – Examples include laptop personal computers, pen-based tablet computers, and their portable accessories such as printers and CD-ROM drives.
  • STATIONARY EQUIPMENT: Equipment that is not MOVABLE EQUIPMENT.
  • EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDING-IN: Equipment intended to be installed in a prepared recess, such as in a wall, or similar situation. NOTE – In general, EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDING-IN does not have an ENCLOSURE on all sides, as some of the sides will be protected after installation.
  • DIRECT PLUG-IN EQUIPMENT: Equipment that is intended to be used without a power supply cord; the mains plug forms an integral part of the equipment ENCLOSURE so that the weight of the equipment is taken by the socket-outlet.

    Classes of equipment – Protection against electric shock
    NOTE – Some information technology equipment cannot be identified as conforming to one of the following classes.
  • CLASS I EQUIPMENT: Equipment where protection against electric shock is achieved by:
    using BASIC INSULATION, and also
    providing a means of connecting to the PROTECTIVE EARTHING CONDUCTOR in the building wiring those conductive parts that are otherwise capable of assuming HAZARDOUS VOLTAGES if the BASIC INSULATION fails. NOTE – CLASS I EQUIPMENT may have parts with DOUBLE INSULATION or REINFORCED INSULATION.
  • CLASS II EQUIPMENT: Equipment in which protection against electric shock does not rely on BASIC INSULATION only, but in which additional safety precautions, such as DOUBLE INSULATION or REINFORCED INSULATION are provided, there being no reliance on either protective earthing or installation conditions.
  • CLASS III EQUIPMENT: Equipment in which protection against electric shock relies upon supply from SELV CIRCUITS and in which HAZARDOUS VOLTAGES are not generated. NOTE – For CLASS III EQUIPMENT, although there is no requirement for protection against electric shock, all other requirements of the standard apply.

    Connection to the supply
  • PLUGGABLE EQUIPMENT TYPE A: Equipment which is intended for connection to the building installation wiring via a non-industrial plug and socket-outlet or a non-industrial appliance coupler, or both. NOTE – 1-15, 2-15, 2-20, 5-15 and 5-20 plugs and outlets as specified in IEC 60083 are considered to be non-industrial within the meaning of UL60950.
  • PLUGGABLE EQUIPMENT TYPE B: Equipment which is intended for connection to the building installation wiring via an industrial plug and socket-outlet or an appliance coupler, or both, complying with IEC 60309, or with a comparable national standard.
  • PERMANENTLY CONNECTED EQUIPMENT: Equipment which is intended for connection to the building installation wiring using screw terminals or other reliable means.
  • DETACHABLE POWER SUPPLY CORD: A flexible cord, for supply purposes, intended to be connected to the equipment by means of a suitable appliance coupler.
  • NON-DETACHABLE POWER SUPPLY CORD: A flexible cord, for supply purposes, fixed to or assembled with the equipment. Such a cord may be:
    Ordinary: A flexible cord which can be easily replaced without special preparation of the cord or special TOOLS, or
    Special: A flexible cord which is specially prepared or requires the use of specially designed TOOLS for replacement, or is such that it cannot be replaced without damage to the equipment.
    The term ²specially prepared² includes provision of an integral cord guard, the use of cable lugs, formation of eyelets, etc., but not the re-shaping of the conductor before introduction into a terminal or the twisting of a stranded conductor to consolidate the end.

    Enclosures
  • ENCLOSURE: A part of the equipment providing one or more of the functions described in
  • NOTE – One type of ENCLOSURE can be inside another type (e.g. an ELECTRICAL ENCLOSURE inside a FIRE ENCLOSURE or a FIRE ENCLOSURE inside an ELECTRICAL ENCLOSURE). Also, a single ENCLOSURE can provide the functions of more than one type (e.g. those of both an ELECTRICAL ENCLOSURE and a FIRE ENCLOSURE).
  • FIRE ENCLOSURE: A part of the equipment intended to minimize the spread of fire or flames from within.
  • MECHANICAL ENCLOSURE: A part of the equipment intended to reduce the risk of injury due to mechanical and other physical hazards.
  • ELECTRICAL ENCLOSURE: A part of the equipment intended to limit access to parts that may be at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE or HAZARDOUS ENERGY LEVELS or are in TNV CIRCUITS.
  • DECORATIVE PART: A part of the equipment, outside the ENCLOSURE, which has no safety function.

    Accessibility
  • OPERATOR ACCESS AREA: An area to which, under normal operating conditions, one of the following applies:
    access can be gained without the use of a TOOL, or
    the means of access is deliberately provided to the OPERATOR, or
    the OPERATOR is instructed to enter regardless of whether or not a TOOL is needed to gain access. The terms ²access² and ²accessible², unless qualified, relate to OPERATOR ACCESS AREA as defined above.
  • SERVICE ACCESS AREA: An area, other than an OPERATOR ACCESS AREA, where it is necessary for SERVICE PERSONNEL to have access even with the equipment switched on.
  • RESTRICTED ACCESS LOCATION: A location for equipment where both of the following paragraphs apply:
    access can only be gained by SERVICE PERSONNEL or by USERS who have been instructed about the reasons for the restrictions applied to the location and about any precautions that shall be taken; and access is through the use of a TOOL or lock and key, or other means of security, and is controlled by the authority responsible for the location. NOTE – The requirements for equipment intended for installation in RESTRICTED ACCESS LOCATIONS are the same as for OPERATOR ACCESS AREAS,
  • 1.2.7.4 TOOL: A screwdriver or any other object which may be used to operate a screw, latch or similar fixing means.
  • 1.2.7.5 BODY: All accessible conductive parts, shafts of handles, knobs, grips and the like, and metal foil in contact with all accessible surfaces of insulating material.
  • 1.2.7.6 SAFETY INTERLOCK: A means either of preventing access to a hazardous area until the hazard is removed, or of automatically removing the hazardous condition when access is gained.

    Circuits and circuit characteristics
  • AC MAINS SUPPLY: The external a.c. power distribution system supplying power to the equipment. These power sources include public or private utilities and, unless otherwise specified in the standard , equivalent sources such as motor-driven generators and uninterruptible power supplies. NOTE – See annex V for typical examples of a.c. power distribution systems.
  • PRIMARY CIRCUIT: A circuit which is directly connected to the AC MAINS SUPPLY. It includes, for example, the means for connection to the AC MAINS SUPPLY, the primary windings of transformers, motors and other loading devices. NOTE – Conductive parts of an INTERCONNECTING CABLE may be part of a PRIMARY CIRCUIT .
  • SECONDARY CIRCUIT: A circuit which has no direct connection to a PRIMARY CIRCUIT and derives its power from a transformer, converter or equivalent isolation device, or from a battery. NOTE – Conductive parts of an INTERCONNECTING CABLE may be part of a SECONDARY CIRCUIT.
  • HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE: A voltage exceeding 42,4 V peak, or 60 V d.c., existing in a circuit which does not meet the requirements for either a LIMITED CURRENT CIRCUIT or a TNV CIRCUIT.
  • ELV CIRCUIT: A SECONDARY CIRCUIT with voltages between any two conductors of the circuit, and between any one such conductor and earth , not exceeding 42,4 V peak, or 60 V d.c., under normal operating conditions, which is separated from HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE by BASIC INSULATION, and which neither meets all of the requirements for an SELV CIRCUIT nor meets all of the requirements for a LIMITED CURRENT CIRCUIT.
  • SELV CIRCUIT: A SECONDARY CIRCUIT which is so designed and protected that under normal operating conditions and single fault conditions, its voltages do not exceed a safe value. NOTE 1 – The limit values of voltages under normal operating conditions and single fault conditions NOTE 2 – This definition of an SELV CIRCUIT differs from the term ²SELV system² as used in IEC 611401.
  • LIMITED CURRENT CIRCUIT: A circuit which is so designed and protected that, under both normal operating conditions and single fault conditions, the current which can be drawn is not hazardous.
  • HAZARDOUS ENERGY LEVEL: A stored energy level of 20 J or more, or an available continuous power level of 240 VA or more, at a potential of 2 V or more.
  • TNV CIRCUIT: A circuit which is in the equipment and to which the accessible area of contact is limited and that is so designed and protected that, under normal operating conditions and single fault conditions , the voltages do not exceed specified limit values. A TNV CIRCUIT is considered to be a SECONDARY CIRCUIT in the meaning of this standard. NOTE 1 – The specified limit values of voltages under normal operating conditions and single fault conditions
  • Requirements regarding accessibility of TNV CIRCUITS are given in 2.1.1.1. TNV CIRCUITS are classified as TNV-1, TNV-2 and TNV-3 CIRCUITS NOTE 2 – The voltage relationships between SELV and TNV CIRCUITS are shown in table 1A. NOTE 3 – Conductive parts of an INTERCONNECTING CABLE may be part of a TNV CIRCUIT Normal operating voltages Overvoltages from TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS possible? Within SELV CIRCUIT limits Exceeding SELV CIRCUIT limits but within TNV CIRCUIT limits Yes TNV-1 CIRCUIT TNV-3 CIRCUIT No SELV CIRCUIT TNV-2 CIRCUIT
  • TNV-1 CIRCUIT: A TNV CIRCUIT: – whose normal operating voltages do not exceed the limits for an SELV CIRCUIT under normal operating conditions, and
    on which overvoltages from TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS are possible.
  • TNV-2 CIRCUIT: A TNV CIRCUIT:
    whose normal operating voltages exceed the limits for an SELV CIRCUIT under normal operating conditions, and 1A list of informative references is given in annex Q: ²Bibliography². 32 CAN/CSA-C22.2 NO. 60950-00 ¨ UL 60950 DECEMBER 1, 2000
    which is not subject to overvoltages from TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS.
  • 1.2.8.12 TNV-3 CIRCUIT: A TNV CIRCUIT:
    whose normal operating voltages exceed the limits for an SELV CIRCUIT under normal operating conditions; and
    on which overvoltages from TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS are possible.

    Insulation
  • FUNCTIONAL INSULATION: Insulation that is necessary only for the correct operation of the equipment. NOTE – FUNCTIONAL INSULATION by definition does not protect against electric shock. It may, however, reduce the likelihood of ignition and fire.
  • BASIC INSULATION: Insulation to provide basic protection against electric shock.
  • SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION: Independent insulation applied in addition to BASIC INSULATION in order to reduce the risk of electric shock in the event of a failure of the BASIC INSULATION.
  • DOUBLE INSULATION: Insulation comprising both BASIC INSULATION and SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION.
  • REINFORCED INSULATION: A single insulation system which provides a degree of protection against electric shock equivalent to DOUBLE INSULATION under the conditions specified in this standard. NOTE – The term ²insulation system² does not imply that the insulation has to be in one homogeneous piece. It may comprise several layers which cannot be tested as SUPPLEMENTARY or BASIC INSULATION.
  • WORKING VOLTAGE: The highest voltage to which the insulation or the component under consideration is, or can be, subjected when the equipment is operating under conditions of normal use.
  • PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE: The highest peak or d.c. value of a WORKING VOLTAGE, including repetitive peak impulses generated in the equipment, but not including external transients.
  • REQUIRED WITHSTAND VOLTAGE: The peak voltage that the insulation under consideration is required to withstand.
  • MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE: The highest peak voltage expected at the power input to the equipment, arising from external transients on the AC MAINS SUPPLY.
  • TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK TRANSIENT VOLTAGE: The highest peak voltage expected at the TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK connection point of the equipment, arising from external transients on the network.

    1.2.10 Clearances and creepage distances
  • CLEARANCE: The shortest distance between two conductive parts, or between a conductive part and the BOUNDING SURFACE of the equipment, measured through air.
  • CREEPAGE DISTANCE: The shortest path between two conductive parts, or between a conductive part and the BOUNDING SURFACE of the equipment, measured along the surface of the insulation.
  • BOUNDING SURFACE: The outer surface of the ELECTRICAL ENCLOSURE, considered as though metal foil were pressed into contact with accessible surfaces of insulating material.

    Components
  • THERMOSTAT: A cycling temperature-sensing control, which is intended to keep a temperature between two particular values under normal operating conditions and which may have provision for setting by the OPERATOR.
  • TEMPERATURE LIMITER: A temperature-sensing control which is intended to keep a temperature below or above one particular value during normal operating conditions and which may have provision for setting by the OPERATOR. NOTE – A TEMPERATURE LIMITER may be of the automatic reset or of the manual reset type.
  • THERMAL CUT-OUT: A temperature-sensing control intended to operate under abnormal operating conditions and which has no provision for the OPERATOR to change the temperature setting. NOTE – A THERMAL CUT-OUT may be of the automatic reset or of the manual reset type.
  • THERMAL CUT-OUT, AUTOMATIC RESET: A THERMAL CUT-OUT which automatically restores the current after the relevant part of the equipment has cooled down sufficiently.
  • THERMAL CUT-OUT, MANUAL RESET: A THERMAL CUT-OUT which requires resetting by hand, or replacement of a part, in order to restore the current.
  • INTERCONNECTING CABLE: A cable that is external to the equipment and that is used to electrically connect an accessory to a unit of information technology equipment, to interconnect units in a system or to connect a unit to a TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK; such a cable may carry any type of circuit from one unit to another.

    Flammability
  • FLAMMABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS: The recognition of the burning behaviour of materials and their ability to extinguish if ignited. Materials are classified as in 1.2.12.2 to
  • when tested in accordance with annex A. NOTE 1 – When applying the requirements in this standard, HF-1 CLASS FOAMED MATERIALS are regarded as better than those of CLASS HF-2, and CLASS HF-2 better than HBF. NOTE 2 – Similarly, other MATERIALS, including rigid (engineering structural) foam of CLASSES 5V or V-0 are regarded as better than those of CLASS V-1, V-1 better than V-2, and V-2 better than HB.
  • V-0 CLASS MATERIAL: A material that, when tested in accordance with A.6, may flame or glow but will meet certain criteria for times to extinguish; glowing particles or flaming drops released do not ignite surgical cotton.
  • V-1 CLASS MATERIAL: A material that, when tested in accordance with A.6, may flame or glow but will meet certain criteria for times to extinguish; glowing particles or flaming drops released do not ignite surgical cotton.
  • V-2 CLASS MATERIAL: A material that, when tested in accordance with A.6, may flame or glow but will meet certain criteria for times to extinguish; glowing particles or flaming drops released may ignite surgical cotton.
  • 5V CLASS MATERIAL: A material that, when tested in accordance with A.9, may flame or glow but will extinguish within a prescribed period of time; glowing particles or flaming drops released do not ignite surgical cotton.
  • HF-1 CLASS FOAMED MATERIAL: A foamed material that, when tested in accordance with A.7, may flame or glow but will extinguish within a prescribed period of time; flaming or glowing particles, or flaming drops released do not ignite surgical cotton.
  • HF-2 CLASS FOAMED MATERIAL: A foamed material that, when tested in accordance with A.7, may flame or glow but will extinguish within a prescribed period of time; flaming or glowing particles, or flaming drops released may ignite surgical cotton.
  • HB CLASS MATERIAL: Material that, when tested in accordance with A.8, does not exceed a specified maximum burning rate.
  • HBF CLASS FOAMED MATERIAL: A foamed material that, when tested in accordance with A.7, does not exceed a specified maximum burning rate.
  • EXPLOSION LIMIT: The lowest concentration of a combustible material in a mixture containing any of the following: gases, vapours, mists or dusts, in which a flame is able to propagate after removal of the ignition source.

    Miscellaneous
  • TYPE TEST: A test on a representative sample of the equipment with the objective of determining if the equipment, as designed and manufactured, can meet the requirements of UL606950.
  • SAMPLING TEST: A test on a number of samples taken at random from a batch.
  • ROUTINE TEST: A test to which each individual sample is subjected during or after manufacture to check if the sample complies with certain criteria [IEV 151-04-16, modified].
  • DC VOLTAGE: The average value of a voltage (as measured by a moving coil meter) having a peak-to-peak ripple not exceeding 10 % of the average value. NOTE – Where peak-to-peak ripple exceeds 10 % of the average value, the requirements related to peak voltage are applicable.
  • SERVICE PERSONNEL: Persons having appropriate technical training and experience necessary to be aware of hazards to which they may be exposed in performing a task and of measures to minimize the risks for themselves or other persons.
  • USER: Any person, other than SERVICE PERSONNEL. The term USER in this standard is the same as the term OPERATOR and the two can be interchanged.
  • TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK: A metallically terminated transmission medium intended for communication between equipment that may be located in separate buildings, excluding: – the mains system for supply, transmission and distribution of electrical power, if used as a telecommunication transmission medium;
  • FUNCTIONAL EARTHING: The earthing of a point in equipment or in a system, which is necessary for a purpose other than safety. [IEV 195-01-13, modified]
  • PROTECTIVE EARTHING CONDUCTOR: A conductor in the building installation wiring, or in the power supply cord, connecting a main protective earthing terminal in the equipment to an earth point in the building installation. NOTE – In some countries, the term ²grounding conductor² is used instead of ²PROTECTIVE EARTHING CONDUCTOR².
  • PROTECTIVE BONDING CONDUCTOR: A conductor in the equipment, or a combination of conductive parts in the equipment, connecting a main protective earthing terminal to a part of the equipment that is required to be earthed for safety purposes.
  • TOUCH CURRENT: Electric current through a human body when it touches one or more accessible parts. [IEV 195-05-21, modified]1) NOTE – TOUCH CURRENT was previously included in the term ²leakage current².
  • PROTECTIVE CONDUCTOR CURRENT: Current

    Industrial, scientific and medical equipment

    – Radio-frequency disturbance characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement (CISPR 11)
  • industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) applications (of radio frequency energy) operation of equipment or appliances designed to generate and use locally radio frequency energy for industrial, scientific, medical, domestic or similar purposes, excluding applications in the field of telecommunications
    NOTE 1 Typical applications are the production of physical, biological, or chemical effects such as heating, ionisation of gases, mechanical vibrations, hair removal, acceleration of charged particles. A non-exhaustive list of examples is given in Annex A. NOTE 2 The abbreviation ISM RF is used throughout this standard for such equipment or appliances.
    NOTE In individual countries, different or additional frequencies may be designated for use by ISM equipment.
  • ISM equipment and appliances - equipment or appliances designed to generate and/or use locally radio-frequency energy for industrial, scientific, medical, domestic or similar purposes, excluding applications in the field of telecommunications and information technology and other applications covered by other CISPR publications
  • (electromagnetic) radiation
    1. phenomenon by which energy in the form of electromagnetic waves emanates from a source into space
    2. energy transferred through space in the form of electromagnetic waves NOTE By extension, the term "electromagnetic radiation" sometimes also covers induction phenomena.
  • boundary of the equipment under test - imaginary straight line periphery describing a simple geometric configuration encompassing the equipment under test. All interconnecting cables are included within this boundary
  • electro-discharge machining (EDM) equipment - all the necessary units for the spark erosion process including the machine tool, the generator,control circuits, the working fluid container and integral devices
  • Spark erosion - removal of material in a dielectric working fluid by electro-discharges, which are separated in time and randomly distributed in space, between two electrically conductive electrodes (the tool electrode and the work piece electrode), and where the energy in the discharge is controlled
  • arc welding equipment - equipment for applying current and voltage and having the required characteristics suitable for arc welding and allied processes.
    equipment for resistance welding and allied processes
    all equipment associated with carrying out the processes of resistance welding or allied processes consisting of e.g. power source, electrodes, tooling and associated control equipment, which may be a separate unit or part of a complex machine.
  • low voltage (LV) a set of voltage levels used for the distribution of electricity and whose upper limit is generally accepted to be 1 000 V a.c.

    Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of electrical lighting and similar equipment (CISPR 15)

  • Continuous disturbance may be either broadband, for instance caused by the switching operations or by unstable gas-discharges in the lamp electrode region, or may be narrowband, for instance caused by electronic control devices operating at dedicated frequencies. NOTE Instead of the concept of "broadband" and "narrowband", a distinction is made in this standard between two related kinds of disturbance, defined by the type of the applied detector. For this purpose, limits have been defined with respect to the measurement with the quasi-peak detector and with the average detector. By using this approach, a combination of broadband and narrowband disturbances can also be assessed.

    Telcom

    Telecom Dictionary Provided by Intec. Network Dictionary General Telecommunications Glossary Cellular Networking Perspectives: Wireless Telecom Glossary ATIS Telecom Glossary 2000

    Chemical

    International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) MSDS - An Explanation of Common Terms

    Electronics

    Electronics Dictionary COMMON ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN ELECTRONICS
  • ac Alternating current.
  • ANSI American National Standards Institute - An organization sponsored by the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association for establishing voluntary industry standards.
  • consumer protection legislation - The basic consumer protection legislation enacted by the federal government is the
  • FTC. Federal Trade Commission Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive acts or practices. Others include the Consumer Credit Protection Act, the Consumer Product Safety Act, environmental protection acts, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act, the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act, the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, the Pure Food and Drug Act, the Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act, the Telephone Disclosure and Dispute Resolution Act, and the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act.
  • dc Direct current.
  • EMC Electromagnetic compatibility.
  • EMI Electromagnetic interference.
  • ESD Electrostatic discharge. Electrostatic discharge Correct term: discharge of static electricity. Process of charge balancing between solid, liquid or gaseous media that have different electrostatic charges. It is generally accompanied by a spark or lightning-like discharge phenomenon, but can also occur with purely physical contact if the potential difference does not exceed 330 Volts before the contact. In the event of spark formation, combustible gases and vapours or explosive mixtures can be ignited and the currents and fields associated with a discharge can damage or destroy electronic components or impair the function of electronic equipment. The former effects are fire and explosion protection or technical protection issues, whereas the latter are electromagnetic compatibility issues. The electrostatic human body discharges that are possible from humans onto circuits, printed circuit boards, control elements and vessel surfaces in the context of transportation, assembly, testing, operation, repair and service actions are of particular importance when dealing with electronic equipment. The following electrical values are to be expected here: energy content 10 to 30 mJ, electrostatic voltage 0.1 to 20 kV, discharge current up to 30 A. Pulse amplitude, rate of current change up to 100 A/ns, electric field strength 1 to 4 kV/m, magnetic field strength up to 15 A/m at cm distance from the discharge
  • GND Ground (electrical).
  • NEBS Network Equipment Building System - Even more stringent than the FCC Part 15 requirements, NEBS covers a large range of requirements including criteria for personnel safety, protection of property, and operational continuity. The Bellcore documents cover both physical requirements including: Space Planning, Temperature, Humidity, Fire, Earthquake, Vibration, Transportation, Acoustical, Air Quality and Illumination; and electrical criteria including: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD), Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Lightning and AC Power Fault, Steady State Power Induction, Corrosion,, DC Potential Difference, Electrical Safety and Bonding and Grounding.



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